Стащил из ресеча пару слов про "криптоевро".
Как я понимаю, теперь, чтобы выделить "стимул" на домохозяйство - не нужны будут коммерческие банки. Центробанк сможет напрямую в любом персональном регистре создать необходимое количество евро, с заданной процентной ставкой именно для данного транша. Мечта Госплана.
А биток и альта... это то куда будут линять из этого европейского рая в случае шока.
Если битку не устроят атаку 51%, конечно. Но это может сделать только США.
Атака сейчас стоит порядка $9 млрд в год.С ростом капитализации она кратно дорожает.
Уклониться от нее будет вероятно, но цена обрушится при таком сценарии.
Но тут будут эффекты второго порядка (электричество, банкротсва существующих на время атаки фондов, деривативов и т.д.)
Короче, если мочить - то сейчас, пока это стоит чуть больше процента военный расходов США.
"A digital euro is on its way
The ECB is intensively exploring whether and how to issue a digital euro – hence, a
Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) that can be used by the public similar to cash.
Currently, the ECB is in the preparation phase and a decision should be made mid2021.
The large number of studies and communication that have been published lately
makes it very likely that the decision will be affirmative. This would make the euro area
less dependent on non-European payments providers and offer a secure digital currency in times of crisis.
We highlight the most important questions around this project.
In the past two months, the ECB has provided several studies and speeches on Central
Bank Digital Currencies (CBDC) and the advantages a digital euro might have. A decision
whether to issue a digital euro has not been made yet, and is expected for next summer,
but the arguments presented so far strongly hint that the ECB is seriously considering to
do so. It would not be first central bank that is exploring the topic. Apparently, the Central
Bank of China has studied the topic for several years already.
And Facebook too has ventured into this area with its Libra project. But even if the ECB decides to issue a digital
euro, it will take probably a few more years until it is ready do so.
What is a digital euro? It is a central bank digital currency (CBDC), hence, a currency that
is issued and backed by a central bank. Its properties would be similar to banknotes –
just in digital form.
Would a digital euro abolish banknotes? No. A digital euro is a complement but not a substitute to banknotes and coins.
The ECB has confirmed repeatedly that it does not intend
to abolish regular cash.
What is the difference of CBDC to credit card payments and crypto assets? CBDC are a
liability of a central bank and therefore state-backed and extremely safe or even risk-free.
Credit card payments as well as commercial bank money are a liability of private sector
entities and therefore less safe even if they are regulated, supervised and partly backed
by deposit insurance guarantees. Crypto-assets are not a liability of anyone and are completely unregulated.
Compared to CBDC or credit card payments, they have no central entity that backs them.
Instead, they are backed in a decentralised way in the form of distributed ledger technology, from which they derive their safety properties. As crypto assets
have no central backing, there is also no one accountable for the stability of their value.
CBDC, in contrast, have a central bank that would guarantee the purchasing power of its
currency and would not fluctuate beyond their definition of price stability.
Why do we need a digital currency? Currently, we can observe two major trends that are
being strengthened by the pandemic: (1) The digitalisation of large parts of the economy
and (2) a declining importance of the use of cash as a means of payment. A digital currency
might complement these trends and meet changing consumer demand and preferences.
Thereby, it might also help to counter the currently very fragmented European payment
system, whereby the dominant means of digital payment in one country cannot always be
used in all others.
There are three main advantages that might come with a CBDC: (1) one is the ownership
of critical and private data that will not fall into the hands of private companies. The strong network effects of payment systems and means implies that oligopolistic or monopolistic
currencies are likely in this area, such that the abuse of market power by private (tech-)
companies would become an increasingly important topic. (ii) A second advantage is that
a CBDC could make it easier to combat illicit activities. (iii) The third advantage is that a
digital euro could secure independence of non-European payment systems. As a result,
European payments could be made in a globally digital economy independently on the
unilateral actions of others – preserving the autonomy of European payments.
This basically means that Europe would become more independent from the US, its sanctions on
other countries and its possible future weaponisation of the US dollar. Hence, a digital
euro would help to preserve European sovereignty.
Digital central bank money is actually not a new idea. Indeed, banks have been using for
a long time digital central bank money for wholesale transaction. The new feature of a
digital euro would be to give households access to central bank money, which they then
could use for their payment needs or as a store of value.
How to remunerate a digital euro? It is a tricky question what interest rate a digital euro
should earn. If that is too attractive compared to bank deposits, the commercial banking
sector would be crowded out. If it is zero like for bank notes, this would be the new effective lower interest bound under which policy rates could not fall further, even if negative
rates would be appropriate for monetary policy reasons. Furthermore, a zero interest rate
could destabilise the financial system as investors might all shift their funds into a digital
euro in times of crisis when a safe heaven is in high demand. It is the cost and risk of
holding banknotes that is preventing these kinds of bank runs in the current system. In
order to meet these concerns, Bindseil and Panetta have proposed a two-tiered system of
remuneration for CBDC.
Funds that households hold for regular payment needs – for example EUR 3000 per household – would be exempted from negative rates and earn an
interest rate that is no lower than that of banknotes, so at least 0%. Funds that are needed
for wholesale payments or as a store of value could be subject to a lower interest rate. In
any case, the ECB has confirmed that the intention of a digital euro would not be to abolish
banknotes or to be able to implement negative rates on an even larger scale than today........"...